PMake -- A Tutorial
Adam de Boor
2150 Shattuck Ave, Penthouse
Berkeley, CA 94704
Table of Contents
The Basics of PMake
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Writing and Debugging a Makefile
Short-cuts and Other Nice Things
Including Other Makefiles
Modifying Variable Expansion
More on Debugging
PMake for Gods
Archives and Libraries
On the Condition...
A Shell is a Shell is a Shell
DEFCON 3 -- Variable Expansion
DEFCON 2 -- The Number of the Beast
DEFCON 1 -- Imitation is the Not the Highest Form of Flattery
The Way Things Work
Answers to Exercises
Glossary of Jargon
A property given to a target that causes PMake to treat it differently.
The lines immediately following a dependency line that specify
commands to execute to create each of the targets on the dependency
line. Each line in the command script must begin with a tab.
A variable defined in an argument when PMake is first executed.
Overrides all assignments to the same variable name in the makefile.
A construct much like that used in C that allows a makefile to be
configured on the fly based on the local environment, or on what is being
made by that invocation of PMake.
Commands used to create a target. See ``command script.''
The relationship between a source and a target. This comes in three
flavors, as indicated by the operator between the target and the
source. `:' gives a straight time-wise dependency (if the target is
older than the source, the target is out-of-date), while `!' provides
simply an ordering and always considers the target out-of-date. `::'
is much like `:', save it creates multiple instances of a target each
of which depends on its own list of sources.
This refers to a source that has a local variable invocation in it. It
allows a single dependency line to specify a different source for each
target on the line.
Any variable defined in a makefile. Takes precedence over variables
defined in the environment, but not over command-line or local variables.
What PMake constructs from a makefile. Consists of nodes made of the
targets in the makefile, and the links between them (the
dependencies). The links are directed (from source to target) and
there may not be any cycles (loops) in the graph.
A variable defined by PMake visible only in a target's shell script.
There are seven local variables, not all of which are defined for
may be used on dependency lines to create ``dynamic sources.''
A file that describes how a system is built. If you don't know what it
is after reading this tutorial....
A letter, following a colon, used to alter how a variable is expanded.
It has no effect on the variable itself.
What separates a source from a target (on a dependency line) and specifies
the relationship between the two. There are three:
A list of directories in which a file should be sought. PMake's view
of the contents of directories in a search path does not change once
the makefile has been read. A file is sought on a search path only if
it is exclusively a source.
A program to which commands are passed in order to create targets.
Anything to the right of an operator on a dependency line. Targets on
the dependency line are usually created from the sources.
A target that causes PMake to do special things when it's encountered.
The tail end of a file name. Usually begins with a period,
A word to the left of the operator on a dependency line. More
generally, any file that PMake might create. A file may be (and often
is) both a target and a source (what it is depends on how PMake is
looking at it at the time -- sort of like the wave/particle duality
of light, you know).
A special construct in a makefile that specifies how to create a file
of one type from a file of another, as indicated by their suffixes.
The process of substituting the value of a variable for a reference to
it. Expansion may be altered by means of modifiers.
A place in which to store text that may be retrieved later. Also used
to define the local environment. Conditionals exist that test whether
a variable is defined or not.
Table of Contents
2. The Basics of PMake
2.1. Dependency Lines
2.2. Shell Commands
2.3.1. Local Variables
2.3.2. Command-line Variables
2.3.3. Global Variables
2.3.4. Environment Variables
2.6. Writing and Debugging a Makefile
2.7. Invoking PMake
3. Short-cuts and Other Nice Things
3.1. Transformation Rules
3.2. Including Other Makefiles
3.3. Saving Commands
3.4. Target Attributes
3.5. Special Targets
3.6. Modifying Variable Expansion
3.7. More on Debugging
3.8. More Exercises
4. PMake for Gods
4.1. Search Paths
4.2. Archives and Libraries
4.3. On the Condition...
4.4. A Shell is a Shell is a Shell
4.5.1. DEFCON 3 -- Variable Expansion
4.5.2. DEFCON 2 -- The Number of the Beast
4.5.3. DEFCON 1 -- Imitation is the Not the Highest Form of Flattery
4.6. The Way Things Work
5. Answers to Exercises
6. Glossary of Jargon