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Date:      Tue, 22 Mar 2016 13:37:37 -0400
From:      Lowell Gilbert <>
Cc:        "unixreader\" <>
Subject:   Re: some confusion in socket(2)
Message-ID:  <>
In-Reply-To: <> (Teng Zhang via freebsd-questions's message of "Tue, 22 Mar 2016 13:40:57 +0000 (UTC)")
References:  <> <>

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Teng Zhang via freebsd-questions <> writes:

> hello, in socket(2), the following sentence:=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0SOCK_RAW s=
> provide access to internal network protocols and interfaces.My
> confusion is what are included in the range of "internal network
> protocols and interfaces". Could you please tell me the answer or
> where i can find relevant information.

Raw sockets are nothing more than IP sockets without a transport
protocol associated. Routing daemons and ping, for example, use raw
sockets to directly control packet headers.

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