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Date:      Sun, 13 Sep 2020 12:50:28 +0200
From:      Tomasz CEDRO <>
To:        Graham Perrin <>
Cc:        FreeBSD CURRENT <>,  FreeBSD questions <>
Subject:   Re: USB sound devices with FreeBSD-CURRENT
Message-ID:  <>
In-Reply-To: <>
References:  <>

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I am using EMU10K1 attached to the sound system over USB on my laptop
and the device needs to be connected on boot - unplug will crash the

If device is plugged in on boot and I add `hw.snd.default_unit=3` to
`/etc/sysctl.conf`, that is before I start X, then I have audio
playback "by default".

In order to have dynamic audio configuration I have found PulseAudio
helpful a lot as it allows you to select which application uses which
input/otput audio device. Note that PulseAudio can lock your audio
hardware and block clean module removal.

I am not sure about current default sound system in FreeBSD if its
still OSS or ALSA, but if you do not want to use PulseAudio, you may
want to try ALSA configuration at `/usr/local/etc/asound.conf` it
allows some more detailed remap.

Good luck :-)


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