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Date:      Wed, 23 Mar 2016 03:00:26 +0000 (UTC)
From:      Teng Zhang <unixreader@yahoo.com>
To:        "freebsd-questions@freebsd.org" <freebsd-questions@freebsd.org>
Subject:   =?UTF-8?Q?=E5=9B=9E=E5=A4=8D=EF=BC=9ARe:_some_confusion_in_socket(2)?=
Message-ID:  <1318373531.3863333.1458702026447.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com>
In-Reply-To: <4460weh0ri.fsf@be-well.ilk.org>
References:  <4460weh0ri.fsf@be-well.ilk.org>

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ok, i see that. That is to say, this kind of socket just refer to the netwo=
rk layer protocol such as the arp,icmp,ip protocols rather than transport l=
ayer protocols such as tcp protool.
=20
=20
  =E5=9C=A8 2016=E5=B9=B43=E6=9C=8823=E6=97=A5=E5=91=A8=E4=B8=89 =E6=97=B6=
=E9=97=B4:1:37=EF=BC=8CLowell Gilbert<freebsd-questions-local@be-well.ilk.o=
rg> =E5=86=99=E9=81=93=EF=BC=9A   Teng Zhang via freebsd-questions <freebsd=
-questions@freebsd.org> writes:

> hello, in socket(2), the following sentence:=C2=A0 =C2=A0 =C2=A0 =C2=A0 =
=C2=A0SOCK_RAW sockets
> provide access to internal network protocols and interfaces.My
> confusion is what are included in the range of "internal network
> protocols and interfaces". Could you please tell me the answer or
> where i can find relevant information.

Raw sockets are nothing more than IP sockets without a transport
protocol associated. Routing daemons and ping, for example, use raw
sockets to directly control packet headers. =20



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