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Date:      Tue, 16 Oct 2012 13:13:41 -0700
From:      Devin Teske <devin.teske@fisglobal.com>
To:        Stanislav Zaharov <root.vagner@gmail.com>
Cc:        freebsd-questions@freebsd.org
Subject:   Re: MFS root filesystem and static binaries size
Message-ID:  <79906B82-7EF3-44DD-95A1-EF1DD239E2CD@fisglobal.com>
In-Reply-To: <CAFDDX68DyV9ad9qfLWqAKmwVYOxYwBvdEKmFWU+nMpEurAvuig@mail.gmail.com>
References:  <CAFDDX68DyV9ad9qfLWqAKmwVYOxYwBvdEKmFWU+nMpEurAvuig@mail.gmail.com>

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On Oct 16, 2012, at 11:13 AM, Stanislav Zaharov wrote:

> Hello,
>=20
> I have a question regarding the mfsroot file system organization on
> installation cd.
> How is it possible that we have bigger binary files in ls list while actu=
al
> occupied space is less.

The beauty of crunchgen(1).

If you use the "-i" flag to ls, you'll see the inode numbers (and subsequen=
tly notice that a great-many inodes are identical).

When two files have the same inode, they are "hard links" to each other. Un=
like a "soft link" (or "symbolic link" as they are more appropriately calle=
d), which stores a destination-path of the target, a hard link instead look=
s and acts no different than the original in every way.

So, I can hear you asking, if all these binaries are linked to the same fil=
e, what file is that?

/stand/boot_crunch

This is a "crunched" binary (produced by crunchgen(1)).

Here's the configuration file that is fed to crunchgen(1) that produces thi=
s binary:

http://svn.freebsd.org/base/stable/9/release/i386/boot_crunch.conf

Quite simply, crunchgen(1) takes a list of programs (progs) and libraries (=
libs) and produces a "crunched" binary.

You then create links (hard or soft) to the crunched binary. The crunched b=
inary knows by argv[0] which main() subroutine to invoke.

This ultimately allows things to stay nice and tight (storage space-wise).



> But when we try to copy these files on similar
> filesystem using cp or dd the actual used space is bigger?
>=20

cp(1) doesn't track hard-links.

tar(1) does.

If you want to copy /stand out of the mfsroot, you can do this:

mkdir /stand2
tar cf - /stand | tar xf - -C /stand2

A corresponding "ls -li /stand2" should show that the majority of files all=
 have the same inode (whereas if you use cp, "ls -li" will instead show dif=
ferent inodes for every file that was copied, because again, cp(1) does not=
 support retention of hard-links).




> For example when we mount mfsroot image we get:
>=20
> $ df -h /mnt/
>=20
> Filesystem    Size    Used   Avail Capacity  Mounted on
> /dev/md0      3.9M    3.3M    534k    86%    /mnt
>=20
> $ ls -lhs /mnt/stand
> ...
>  766 -r-xr-xr-x  30 root  wheel     3M 10 apr  2012 dhclient
>  766 -r-xr-xr-x  30 root  wheel     3M 10 apr  2012 cpio
>  766 -r-xr-xr-x  30 root  wheel     3M 10 apr  2012 camcontrol
>  766 -r-xr-xr-x  30 root  wheel     3M 10 apr  2012 boot_crunch
> ...
>=20
> But:
>=20
> $ du -hc /mnt/stand
> ...
> 3,2M    total
>=20
>=20
> But if we copy these files onto another UFS filesystem we really consume
> the space:
>=20
> $ cp -a /mnt/stand /tmp/stand
>=20
> $ du -hc /tmp/stand
> ...
> 91M    total
>=20
>=20
> How is it possible and why does it matter for mfsroot?
>=20

The reason crunchgen(1) is used to create /stand/boot_crunch for the instal=
l media (mfsroot) is to save space and simplify the environment. When using=
 a crunched binary, there are no libraries to worry about for example (all =
the libraries are compiled-in).
--=20
Cheers,
Devin

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