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Date:      Sat, 15 Feb 2020 09:19:50 +0100
From:      Ralf Mardorf <ralf.mardorf@rocketmail.com>
To:        freebsd-questions@freebsd.org
Subject:   Re: Technological advantages over Linux
Message-ID:  <20200215091950.578d1836@moonstudio>
In-Reply-To: <20200215071036.GH1482@admin.sibptus.ru>
References:  <20200214121620.GA80657@admin.sibptus.ru> <e39d97dd-5d6b-6b4e-90d7-ae312a690dc0@ubiquitous.ninja> <20200215071036.GH1482@admin.sibptus.ru>

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On Sat, 15 Feb 2020 14:10:36 +0700, Victor Sudakov wrote:
>Yes, I've seen Linux systems (Ubuntu) broken after an upgrade. Not
>completely unbootable (God forbid) but mostly unable to update
>something because of missing or incorrect dependencies, and
>complaining about this.
>
>But I've also seen my share of FreeBSD systems with similar
>dependencies problems. However, in FreeBSD, with its separation of the
>world and ports/packages, you can always "pkg delete -af" and install
>everything from scratch from ports/packages, and you will still have a
>functional base system to deal with problems. And if "freebsd-update"
>screws something up, you can hopefully rollback the update with
>beadm/bectl.

In a worst case scenario you could run a Linux from an USB stick or a
DVD etc., first chroot and then downgrade, for Arch Linux e.g.

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Arch_Linux_Archive#How_to_restore_all_packages_to_a_specific_date

Usually a chroot shouldn't be required, it more likely is possible to
rollback without a chroot and without editing repository and mirror
configs.

It's also possible to downgrade an Ubuntu install. However, due to
Ubuntu's policy an Ubuntu install unlikely gets broken, assuming the
user understands Ubuntu's policy.

Official repositories are split into Main, Restricted, Universe and
Multiverse. While not all are supported by the Ubuntu developers,
upgrading and downgrading within a release does not cause dependency
inconsistencies. Within an Ubuntu release SONAMEs do not change.

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Repositories#Main

Ubuntu installs usually get broken, if unskilled users add third party
repositories. Ubuntu tries to workaround this and other issues by
https://snapcraft.io/ . FWIW Arch Linux does not support snaps.
Everybody is allowed to post the Arch Linux logo and to claim whatever
she likes to claim. Ubuntu already posted the Arch Linux logo, when by
default Arch kernel configs "audit" and "apparmor" were disabled, IOW
when the basic infrastructure for snaps was missing.

To put it in a nutshell, the problem with Linux is diversity, less that
it is missing something. Not everything provided for Linux is
useful, but everything important is well documented, it's just not easy
to decide what policies and manuals to read and after that to decide
what path to take.







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