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Date:      Thu, 28 Sep 2006 15:17:17 -0400
From:      Jerry McAllister <>
To:        Kristopher Yates <>
Subject:   Re: growfs HELP
Message-ID:  <>
In-Reply-To: <BAY103-F487233292BD20E13B14DDEB1B0@phx.gbl>
References:  <> <BAY103-F487233292BD20E13B14DDEB1B0@phx.gbl>

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On Thu, Sep 28, 2006 at 01:54:26PM -0500, Kristopher Yates wrote:

> Anyone else have any suggestions?
> I was thinking I could rewrite my partition table to what it was 
> originally, then growfs using the empty partionable space.. but I dont 
> exactly know how. I just had some docs I found online (URL is below).  
>  Before I did fdisk -s, the 2.888GB was an empty partition of the drive 
> where I could have created a new partition.. but instead I did fdisk to 
> merge it all into the same partition.  The docs I read said to do that, 
> then growfs..  I just didnt understand the vague explanation of doing the 
> math to determine the correct number of sectors to pass to growfs.

> The docs I was using:
> I know it is possible without doing all that you suggested.  It should be a 
> matter of just executing growfs properly and I'm done.  Otherwise, it would 
> be easier to just do a fresh install than to do all that you suggested.  
> Makes sense to me.  I'd rather not have to reinstall.

No, it is less trouble to do it the way I wrote.
Doing the dd stuff is harder and anyway, may not result in what
you want.

Growfs is really not all that useful.
Remember that you have to have empty space in the slice right
contiguous to to the one you want to grow.   You cannot just grab
space from somewhere else on the disk and add it in.  

You could, if you have free space already within an existing 
file system, move some diectories, such as /usr/local out of /usr
and put them[it] in the available space and create a sym link to 
the new location.  

But, if it is unused space that has not been part of a partition, you 
will remake the partition table with disklabel.  If the space is right 
at the end of existing partitioned space, you might get away with it 
without redoing everything, but it is kind of an unadvisable thing 
to try, because what gets written back in the partition table for
the existing partitions just might not line up exactly with their
previous positions - you're expecting a new pointer to point to the
same place as the old one.  It could, but maybe a critical sector gets 
mapped out in the middle things.  It would mess things up.

> My idea was to post here and get a better understanding, growfs and be done 
> with it.  I didnt expect comments from the peanut gallery; ie.

It takes some knowledge to grow peanuts.
If you want help, don't throw ignorance stones.
> >By the way, those are pretty small drives.   I don't see any
> >on the market nowdays less that 18 GB and more likely larger.
> >Maybe you need some new hardware.
> >///jerry
> Not everyone has a kush job at the SCNC working with universities.

What do you know about SCNC?  Obviously nothing.

> A) Why does a box that is just running NATD and portsentry need an 18GB 
> hard drive and a faster processor?

Whatever you want.   
> B) Maybe you need to give me some money so that I may afford to build the 
> fancy firewall/gateway that you suggest.  I almost appreciate your reply 
> but found your final remark to be rather condescending.
> My hardware is fine.  It works and its all I have.  This firewall box has 
> been online 24/7 since 1998 running FBSD just fine.  Blow the dust out once 
> a year and "keep on trucking".

I have a couple of those right here.  

> Michigan has the 2nd worst economy in the US.  I would think you would be 
> more understanding of my situation.  Unfortunately, you have proven me 
> wrong.

Because the previous governor abetted by his psuedo right-wing cronies
in the state congress gutted the state's economy before he finally got
term limited out.

> Thanks to the FREEBSD community for continuing to be the leader in 
> backward-compatible support for old hardware.  Long live the Pentium 60 and 
> the 640 ATA controller! ;)
> Cheers,
> Kris
> >From: Jerry McAllister <>
> >To: Kristopher Yates <>
> >CC:
> >Subject: Re: growfs HELP
> >Date: Thu, 28 Sep 2006 11:45:37 -0400
> >
> >On Thu, Sep 28, 2006 at 03:26:27AM -0500, Kristopher Yates wrote:
> >
> >> Hi everyone,
> >>
> >> First of all, glad to still be running FBSD after all these years.
> >>
> >> I tried following some docs I found online in order to make my /usr
> >> partition bigger and made it all the way to growfs -s, which is where I 
> >got
> >> stuck.
> >>
> >> First of all, here was my original dilema, what I did, then a descript 
> >of
> >> where I am regarding growfs problem.
> >>
> >> System (aka firewall): Pentium60 40M RAM 2 NICS, running FBSD4.5-stable 
> >(a
> >> great firewall running 24/7 since OCT 2000.)
> >>
> >> I tried to upgrade (make buildword make installworld to 4.11-stable).. I
> >> made the new world and installed the new kernel but not quite enough 
> >space
> >> to do the last steps (mergemaster and then installworld).
> >>
> >> So I built a spare box, and installed FBSD on it.
> >>
> >> I put the hard drive from the firewall as secondary master, and a larger
> >> drive as secondary slave.
> >>
> >> * I ran dd and imaged the old drive onto the new drive
> >>
> >>   old drive seagate 1.2gb
> >>   new drive quantum 4.3gb
> >>
> >> * I put the new drive into the old faithful P60 (firewall).  It boots up
> >> fine running 4.11-p22 and is currently online as my firewall.
> >>
> >> What is left to do:
> >>
> >> Finish the 4.11 install which ended on make kernel KERNCONF=CUSTOMKERN.. 
> >I
> >> just need to mergemaster then installworld as single user.
> >>
> >> Obviously, /usr partition (/dev/ad0s1f) is basically full w/ 8.6MB free.
> >>
> >> ** soo.. I did some fdisk magic and got stuck on the growfs (final step) 
> >in
> >> order to growfs /usr
> >>
> >> fdisk reports my 1 partition @ full size of disk but no idea how to
> >> properly use growfs.
> >
> >To use growfs you must have space in the slice contiguous with
> >the partition you want to increase in size.   It cannot just grow
> >anywhere.   You really did not want to move things using dd.
> >You really wanted to build the new file systems to the sizes you
> >want on the new disk and then use dump/restore to to the new
> >partitions.
> >
> >First, fdisk the new disk and put the MBR on it and create your
> >one slice on it and flag that as bootable.
> >
> >Then, use disklabel (in, bsd label in later versions of FreeBSD)
> >to create your slices and also make it write out the boot sector.
> >There is a block of examples in the disklabel/bsdlabel man page
> >that tells how to use dd to make sure a drive is clean
> >and then fdisk to make one slice with MBR and finally two disklabels
> >to create the bootable partition and then to edit the partition
> >table for all the partitions.   That group of commands is just what
> >you need.
> >
> >Then, do a newfs on each partition created (except swap) and
> >then make a mount point for them.   Mount the 'a' partition on
> >something like '/newroot' for example and then run dump/restore
> >to copy root
> >             cd /newroot
> >             dump 0af - / | restore -rf -
> >
> >Do the same dump/restore thing for each of the partitions/filesystems.
> >Make sure you cd in to the base of each mounted new filesystem
> >before doing the dump/restore and replace the '/' in the dump to
> >be each filesystem  - for example, for /usr, make a /newusr mountpoint
> >mount it and then cd to /newusr and do 'dump 0af - /usr | restore -rf -'
> >
> >When you get done, you will have a fully useable, bootable copy of your
> >machine on the new disk.   Move the new disk to the primary boot
> >position in your boot chain and start it up.
> >
> >By the way, those are pretty small drives.   I don't see any
> >on the market nowdays less that 18 GB and more likely larger.
> >Maybe you need some new hardware.
> >
> >////jerry
> >
> >>
> >> Here is what I have:
> >> cylinders=8895 heads=15 sectors/track=63 (945blks/cyl)
> >>
> >> media sector size 512
> >>
> >> partition 1 sysid 165, start 63, size 8405712 (4104 Meg), flag 80 
> >(active)
> >> beg: cyl 0/head 1 / sector 1
> >> end: cyl 1023 / head 14 / sector 63
> >>
> >> basically I need help filling in the following blank (/dev/ad0s1f == 
> >/usr
> >> slice)
> >>
> >> # growfs -s ______ /dev/ad0s1f
> >>
> >> as shown above, fdisk sees the correct geometry as 4104MB partition but
> >> /stand/sysinstall disklabel editor sees ad0s1 as 2888MB, which is the
> >> amount of space I thought I was to be adding to /usr via growfs. 
> >Currently,
> >> my /usr slice is 975MB and really needs to grow. :)
> >>
> >> Please let me know what other info I can provide that will help you help 
> >me
> >> solve this problem.  I have read man growfs and some docs online, 
> >however,
> >> I'm stuck and dont know exactly how to resolve the problem.
> >>
> >> Much thanks,
> >>
> >> Kris
> >>
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