Welcome to the FreeBSD 2.X-4.X FAQ!
As is usual with Usenet FAQs, this document aims to cover the most frequently asked questions concerning the FreeBSD operating system (and of course answer them!). Although originally intended to reduce bandwidth and avoid the same old questions being asked over and over again, FAQs have become recognized as valuable information resources.
Every effort has been made to make this FAQ as informative as possible; if you have any suggestions as to how it may be improved, please feel free to mail them to the FAQ maintainer.
A: Briefly, FreeBSD is a UN*X-like operating system based on U.C. Berkeley's 4.4BSD-lite release for the i386 platform. It is also based indirectly on William Jolitz's port of U.C. Berkeley's Net/2 to the i386, known as 386BSD, though very little of the 386BSD code remains. A fuller description of what FreeBSD is and how it can work for you may be found on the FreeBSD home page.
FreeBSD is used by companies, Internet Service Providers, researchers, computer professionals, students and home users all over the world in their work, education and recreation. See some of them in the FreeBSD Gallery.
For more detailed information on FreeBSD, please see the FreeBSD Handbook.
A: The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may be used for any purpose and without strings attached. Many of us have a significant investment in the code (and project) and would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and then, but we're definitely not prepared to insist on it. We believe that our first and foremost "mission" is to provide code to any and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so that the code gets the widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit. This is, we believe, one of the most fundamental goals of Free Software and one that we enthusiastically support.
That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or GNU Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly more strings attached, though at least on the side of enforced access rather than the usual opposite. Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL software, we do, however, endeavor to replace such software with submissions under the more relaxed BSD copyright whenever possible.
It may be used free of charge, even by commercial users.
Full source for the operating system is freely available, and the minimum possible restrictions have been placed upon its use, distribution and incorporation into other work (commercial or non-commercial).
Anyone who has an improvement and/or bug fix is free to submit their code and have it added to the source tree (subject to one or two obvious provisos).
For those of our readers whose first language is not English, it may be worth pointing out that the word ``free'' is being used in two ways here, one meaning ``at no cost'', the other meaning ``you can do whatever you like''. Apart from one or two things you cannot do with the FreeBSD code, for example pretending you wrote it, you really can do whatever you like with it.
A: Version 4.0 is the latest stable version; it was released in March, 2000. This is also the latest release version.
Briefly explained, -STABLE is aimed at the ISP or other corporate user who wants stability and a low change count over the wizzy new features of the latest -CURRENT snapshot. Releases can come from either branch, but you should only use -CURRENT if you're sure that you're prepared for its increased volatility (relative to -STABLE, that is).
Releases are only made every few months. While many people stay more up-to-date with the FreeBSD sources (see the questions on FreeBSD-CURRENT and FreeBSD-STABLE) than that, doing so is more of a commitment, as the sources are a moving target.
A: FreeBSD-CURRENT is the development version of the operating system, which will in due course become 5.0-RELEASE. As such, it is really only of interest to developers working on the system and die-hard hobbyists. See the relevant section in the handbook for details on running -CURRENT.
If you are not familiar with the operating system or are not capable of identifying the difference between a real problem and a temporary problem, you should not use FreeBSD-CURRENT. This branch sometimes evolves quite quickly and can be un-buildable for a number of days at a time. People that use FreeBSD-CURRENT are expected to be able to analyze any problems and only report them if they are deemed to be mistakes rather than ``glitches''. Questions such as ``make world produces some error about groups'' on the -CURRENT mailing list are sometimes treated with contempt.
Every day, snapshot releases are made based on the current state of the -CURRENT and -STABLE branches. Nowadays, distributions of the occasional snapshot are now being made available. The goals behind each snapshot release are:
To test the latest version of the installation software.
To give people who would like to run -CURRENT or -STABLE but who don't have the time and/or bandwidth to follow it on a day-to-day basis an easy way of bootstrapping it onto their systems.
To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in question, just in case we break something really badly later. (Although CVS normally prevents anything horrible like this happening :)
To ensure that any new features in need of testing have the greatest possible number of potential testers.
No claims are made that any -CURRENT snapshot can be considered ``production quality'' for any purpose. If you want to run a stable and fully tested system, you will have to stick to full releases, or use the -STABLE snaphosts.
Snapshot releases are directly available from ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ for 5.0-CURRENT and releng4.FreeBSD.org for 4-STABLE snapshots. 3-STABLE snapshots are not being produced at the time of this writing (May 2000).
Snapshots are generated, on the average, once a day for all actively developed branches.
A: Back when FreeBSD 2.0.5 was released, we decided to branch FreeBSD development into two parts. One branch was named -STABLE, with the intention that only well-tested bug fixes and small incremental enhancements would be made to it (for Internet Service Providers and other commercial enterprises for whom sudden shifts or experimental features are quite undesirable). The other branch was -CURRENT, which essentially has been one unbroken line leading towards 5.0-RELEASE (and beyond) since 2.0 was released. If a little ASCII art would help, this is how it looks:
*BRANCH* 2.0.5 -> 2.1 -> 2.1.5 -> 2.1.6 -> 18.104.22.168 [2.1-STABLE ends]
| (Mar 1997)
*BRANCH* 2.2.1 -> 2.2.2-RELEASE -> 2.2.5 -> 2.2.6 -> 2.2.7 -> 2.2.8 [end]
| (Mar 1997) (Oct 97) (Apr 98) (Jul 98) (Dec 98)
3.0-SNAPs (started Q1 1997)
3.0-RELEASE (Oct 1998)
*BRANCH* 3.1-RELESE (Feb 1999) -> 3.2 -> 3.3 -> 3.4 -> ... future 3.x releases ...
| (May 1999) (Sep 1999) (Dec 1999)
*BRANCH* 4.0 (Mar 2000) -> ... future 4.x releases ...
The -CURRENT branch is slowly progressing towards 5.0 and beyond, the previous 2.2-STABLE branch having been retired with the release of 2.2.8. 3.4-STABLE has now replaced it, with 3.4-RELEASE being released in mid-December 1999. 4.0-RELEASE was released in March 2000. Although 4-STABLE is the actively developed -STABLE branch, bugfixes are still being committed to 3-STABLE. It is expected that the 3.X branch will be officially obsoleted some time in summer 2000. 5.0-CURRENT is now the "current branch", with the no release date planed.
A: As a general principle, the FreeBSD core team only release a new version of FreeBSD when they believe that there are sufficient new features and/or bug fixes to justify one, and are satisfied that the changes made have settled down sufficiently to avoid compromising the stability of the release. Many users regard this caution as one of the best things about FreeBSD, although it can be a little frustrating when waiting for all the latest goodies to become available...
Releases are made about every 4 months on average.
For people needing (or wanting) a little more excitement, binary snapshots are made every day... see above.
A: Since 3.x, FreeBSD has run on the DEC Alpha as well as the x86 architecture. Some interest has also been expressed in a SPARC port, but details on this project are not yet clear.
A: The key decisions concerning the FreeBSD project, such as the overall direction of the project and who is allowed to add code to the source tree, are made by a core team of some 15 people. There is a much larger team of about 200 committers who are authorized to make changes directly to the FreeBSD source tree.
However, most non-trivial changes are discussed in advance in the mailing lists, and there are no restrictions on who may take part in the discussion.
A: Every significant release of FreeBSD is available via anonymous ftp from the FreeBSD FTP site:
For the current 3.X-STABLE release, 3.4-RELEASE, see the 3.4-RELEASE directory.
The current 4.X-STABLE release, 4.0-RELEASE can be found in the the 4.0-RELEASE directory.
4.X snapshots are usually made once a day.
FreeBSD is also available via CDROM, from the following place(s):
In Australia, you may find it at:
Advanced Multimedia Distributors
Factory 1/1 Ovata Drive
Voice: +61 3 9338 6777
CDROM Support BBS
17 Irvine St
Peppermint Grove, WA
Voice: +61 9 385-3793
Fax: +61 9 385-2360
And in the UK:
The Public Domain & Shareware Library
Winscombe House, Beacon Rd
Sussex. TN6 1UL
Voice: +44 1892 663-298
Fax: +44 1892 667-473
A: You can find full information in the Handbook entry on mailing-lists.
A: You can find full information in the FreeBSD Y2K page.
A: You can find full information in the Handbook entry on newsgroups.
A: Yes, most major IRC networks host a FreeBSD chat channel:
Channel #FreeBSD on EFNet is a FreeBSD forum, but don't go there for tech support or to try and get folks there to help you avoid the pain of reading man pages or doing your own research. It is a chat channel, first and foremost, and topics there are just as likely to involve sex, sports or nuclear weapons as they are FreeBSD. You Have Been Warned! Available at server irc.chat.org.
Channel #FreeBSDhelp on EFNet is a channel dedicated to helping FreeBSD users. They are much more sympathetic to questions then #FreeBSD is.
Channel #FreeBSD on DALNET is available at irc.dal.net in the US and irc.eu.dal.net in Europe.
Channel #FreeBSD on UNDERNET is available at us.undernet.org in the US and eu.undernet.org in Europe. Since it is a help channel, be prepared to read the documents you are referred to.
Each of these channels are distinct and are not connected to each other. Their chat styles also differ, so you may need to try each to find one suited to your chat style. As with *all* types of IRC traffic, if you're easily offended or can't deal with lots of young people (and more than a few older ones) doing the verbal equivalent of jello wrestling, don't even bother with it.
A: There is a FreeBSD Documentation Project which you may contact (or even better, join) at the freebsd-doc mailing list: <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>. This list is for discussion of the FreeBSD documentation. For actual questions about FreeBSD, there is the freebsd-questions mailing list: <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
A FreeBSD ``handbook'' is available, and can be found as: the FreeBSD Handbook. Note that this is a work in progress; some parts may be incomplete or out-of-date.
The definitive printed guide on FreeBSD is ``The Complete FreeBSD'', written by Greg Lehey and published by Walnut Creek CDROM Books. Now in its second edition, the book contains 1,750 pages of install & system administration guidance, program setup help, and manual pages. The book (and current FreeBSD release) can be ordered from Walnut Creek, CheapBytes, or at your favorite bookstore. The ISBN is 1-57176-227-2.
Since FreeBSD is based upon Berkeley 4.4BSD-Lite2, most of the 4.4BSD manuals are applicable to FreeBSD. O'Reilly and Associates publishes the following manuals:
4.4BSD System Manager's Manual By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley 1st Edition June 1994, 804 pages ISBN: 1-56592-080-5
4.4BSD User's Reference Manual By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley 1st Edition June 1994, 905 pages ISBN: 1-56592-075-9
4.4BSD User's Supplementary Documents By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley 1st Edition July 1994, 712 pages ISBN: 1-56592-076-7
4.4BSD Programmer's Reference Manual By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley 1st Edition June 1994, 886 pages ISBN: 1-56592-078-3
4.4BSD Programmer's Supplementary Documents By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley 1st Edition July 1994, 596 pages ISBN: 1-56592-079-1
A description of these can be found via WWW as: 4.4BSD books description. Due to poor sales, however, these manuals may be hard to get a hold of.
For a more in-depth look at the 4.4BSD kernel organization, you can't go wrong with:
McKusick, Marshall Kirk, Keith Bostic, Michael J Karels, and John Quarterman.
The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System. Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1996. ISBN 0-201-54979-4
A good book on system administration is:
Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Scott Seebass & Trent R. Hein, ``Unix System Administration Handbook'', Prentice-Hall, 1995 ISBN: 0-13-151051-7
NOTE make sure you get the second edition, with a red cover, instead of the first edition.
This book covers the basics, as well as TCP/IP, DNS, NFS, SLIP/PPP, sendmail, INN/NNTP, printing, etc.. It's expensive (approx. US$45-$55), but worth it. It also includes a CDROM with the sources for various tools; most of these, however, are also on the FreeBSD 2.2.6R CDROM (and the FreeBSD CDROM often has newer versions).
A: Yes. The documentation is available in a number of different formats and compression schemes on the FreeBSD FTP site, in the /pub/FreeBSD/doc/ directory.
The documentation is categorised in a number of different ways. These include:
The document's name, such as faq, or handbook.
The document's language and encoding. These are based on the locale names you will find under /usr/share/locale on your FreeBSD system. The current languages and encodings that we have for documentation are as follows:
|ja_JP.eucJP||Japanese (EUC encoding)|
|zh_TW.Big5||Chinese (Big5 encoding)|
Note: Some documents may not be available in all languages.
The document's format. We produce the documentation in a number of different output formats to try and make it as flexible as possible. The current formats are;
|html-split||A collection of small, linked, HTML files.|
|html||One large HTML file containing the entire document|
|pdb||Palm Pilot database format, for use with the iSilo reader.|
|Adobe's Portable Document Format|
|rtf||Microsoft's Rich Text Format[a]|
a. Page numbers are not automatically updated when loading this format in to Word. Press CTRL+A, CTRL+END, F9 after loading the document, to update the page numbers.
The compression and packaging scheme. There are three of these currently in use.
Where the format is html-split, the files are bundled up using tar(1). The resulting .tar file is then compressed using the compression schemes detailed in the next point.
All the other formats generate one file, called book.format (i.e., book.pdb, book.html, and so on).
These files are then compressed using three compression schemes.
|zip||The Zip format. If you want to uncompress this on FreeBSD you will need to install the archivers/unzip port first.|
|gz||The GNU Zip format. Use gunzip(1) to uncompress these files, which is part of FreeBSD.|
|bz2||The BZip2 format. Less widespread than the others, but generally gives smaller files. Install the archivers/bzip2 port to uncompress these files.|
So the Postscript version of the Handbook, compressed using BZip2 will be stored in a file called book.sgml.bz2 in the handbook/ directory.
The formatted documentation is also available as a FreeBSD package, of which more later.
After choosing the format and compression mechanism that you want to download, you must then decide whether or not you want to download the document as a FreeBSD package.
The advantage of downloading and installing the package is that the documentation can then be managed using the normal FreeBSD package management comments, such as pkg_add(1) and pkg_delete(1).
If you decide to download and install the package then you must know the filename to download. The documentation-as-packages files are stored in a directory called packages. Each package file looks like document-name.lang.encoding.format.tgz.
For example, the FAQ, in English, formatted as PDF, is in the package called faq.en_US.ISO_8859-1.pdf.tgz.
Knowing this, you can use the following command to install the English PDF FAQ package.
# pkg_add ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/packages/faq.en_US.ISO_8859-1.pdf.tgz
Having done that, you can use pkg_info(1) to determine where the file has been installed.
# pkg_info -f faq.en_US.ISO_8859-1.pdf Information for faq.en_US.ISO_8859-1.pdf: Packing list: Package name: faq.en_US.ISO_8859-1.pdf CWD to /usr/share/doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/faq File: book.pdf CWD to . File: +COMMENT (ignored) File: +DESC (ignored)
As you can see, book.pdf will have been installed in to /usr/share/doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/faq.
If you do not want to use the packages then you will have to download the compressed files yourself, uncompress them, and then copy the appropriate documents in to place.
For example, the split HTML version of the FAQ, compressed using gzip(1), can be found in the en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.gz file. To download and uncompress that file you would have to do this.
# fetch ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.gz # gzip -d book.html-split.tar.gz # tar xvf book.html-split.tar
You will be left with a collection of .html files. The main one is called index.html, which will contain the table of contents, introductory material, and links to the other parts of the document. You can then copy or move these to their final location as necessary.
A: Certainly! There are multiple ways to mirror the Web pages.
Using CVSup: You can retrieve the formatted files using CVSup, and connecting to a CVSup server.
To retrieve the webpages, please look at the example supfile, which can be found in /usr/share/examples/cvsup/www-supfile.
Using ftp mirror: You can download the FTP server's copy of the web site sources using your favorite ftp mirror tool. Keep in mind that you have to build these sources before publishing them. Simply start at ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/www.
A: Well, we can't pay, but we might arrange a free CD or T-shirt and a Contributor's Handbook entry if you submit a translation of the documentation. Before you begin translating please contact the freebsd-doc mailing list at <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>; you may find somebody to help with the translation effort. You may also find out there is already a team translating the docs into your chosen language, who surely wouldn't turn down your help.
A: The following newsgroups contain pertinent discussion for FreeBSD users:
The FreeBSD Home Page.
If you have a laptop, be sure and see Tatsumi Hosokawa's Mobile Computing page in Japan.
For information on SMP (Symmetric MultiProcessing), please see the SMP support page.
The FreeBSD handbook also has a fairly complete bibliography section which is worth reading if you're looking for actual books to buy.
For questions about FreeBSD, e-mail
For questions about this documentation, e-mail <doc@FreeBSD.org>.